DENMARK

Den 29. marts 1814 er en vigtig dato inden for dansk jødisk historie. Kom ind på museet og bliv klogere på Danmarks første "integrationsprojekt".

 

Frederik VI underskrev den 29. marts 1814 Den Kongelige Anordning af 1814, hvilket var første skridt i retning af oprettelsen af lige rettigheder for jøder og den øvrige danske befolkning

Jødefejden 1813 eller den litterære jødefejde er betegnelsen for den strid der førtes i 1813-1814 mellem antisemitter og deres modstandere. Denne strid blev til forskel fra  Jødefejden 1819-1820 først og fremmest ført på skrift.

 

 

De danske jøder havde i løbet af 1790'erne og  1810'erne fået bedre muligheder for at deltage i det danske samfund. Særligt ved en stor forbedring af deres uddannelsesmuligheder og desuden muligheden for at ernære sig som håndværkere foruden det traditionelle handelsfag. Kombineret med den danske statsbankerot i 1813 og den generelle nederlagsfølelse som følge af Danmarks fejlslagne politik i Napoleonskrigene voksede en betydelig bølge af antisemtisme frem i visse grupper af befolkningen.

 

Les arikkelen her.

JØDEFEJDEN 1819 - 1820

Jødefejden er betegnelsen for de antisemitiske optøjer, som fandt sted i København i 1819 og januar 1820.

 

Optøjerne var sandsynligvis direkte inspireret af de tyske antisemitiske optøjer i byerne Würzburg (3. august), Frankfurt am Main (10. august), Darmstadt (12. august), Hamburg (20. august), Heidelberg (23. august) og Karlsruhe (27. august) 1819.

 

Der var i København allerede grobund for antisemitiske optøjer efter Jødefejden 1813, som stadig spirede.

 

Les artikkelen her

Jødefejden. Det kongelige Biblotek. Foto: Fotografisk Atelier. DKB.

DEN LITERÆRE JØDEFEJDEN 1813

Heinrich Hirschsprung (7 February 1836–1908) was a Danish tobacco manufacturer, arts patron and art collector, founder of the Hirschsprung Collection in Copenhagen, a museum dedicated to Danish art from the 19th and early 20th century.

 

Contents

  [hide] 

  • 1Family and business life

  • 2Art collection and artist friends

  • 3References

  • 4External links

 

Family and business life[edit]

Heinrich Hirschsprung was born on 7 February 1836 in Copenhagen into a family of German-Jewish descent. His father, Abraham Marcus, had been born in Friedberg near Frankfurt am Main in 1783 but moved to Denmark where he opened a small tobacco business in Copenhagen's Hotel D'Angleterre in 1826. Two years later, in 1827, he married Petrea Hirschsprung née Hertz (1804–1891), and they had six children.[1]

Heinrich and his brother Bernhard took over their father's shop in 1858 and under their leadership the business, now specializing in cigar making, grew rapidly. In 1866, they bought a piece of unused land at Gammelholm, an area which had been a naval site until 1859. There they built a modern factory for manufacting cigars. It was designed by the young architect Ove Petersen in a Historicist style which relied on Italian Renaissance architecture for inspiration.

Heinrich married Pauline Elisabeth Jacobson (9 July 1845 - 1912), afterwards known as Pauline Hirschsprung, on 26 June 1864. They had five children; Ellen, Ivar, Åge, Robert and Oskar. Pauline was the daughter of wholesaler Daniel Simon (1791–1858) and Friederiche Jacobson née Gerhardt (1811–1855).

They had their first apartment on Højbro Plads in Copenhagen and then a house on Bredgade. They also had country homes in the north of Sjælland as well as in Italy.

Hirschsprung's disease is named after his pediatrician brother Harald, who first described it.

Art collection and artist friends[edit]

P.S. Krøyer: Heinrich Hirschsprung (1899, The Hirschsprung Collection)

Hirschsprung began his art collection in 1866, with the purchase of a painting by Julius Exner (1825–1910). His collection expanded over the years with additional purchases of paintings by contemporary Danish artists. It was a modern collection of examples from the Skagen Painters, the Fynboerne (Funen Artists) and Symbolists.

Hirschsprung was a great supporter, both personal and economic, of P.S. Krøyer who met him through Frants Henningsen, a mutual friend at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi). Hirschsprung admired Krøyer’s artistic talent and skills, and he purchased the first paintings from him in 1874 — four watercolors from Hornbæk. They continued a lifelong friendship. Hirschsprung helped finance Krøyer’s travels and foreign residence during the years 1877-1881, giving him the economic support needed to develop his artistic skills. Krøyer was a friend of the entire family. He carried on a personal correspondence with Pauline and made a number of family portraits of Heinrich, Pauline and their children.

In addition to P.S. Krøyer, their homes were gathering places for such other contemporary artists as authors Holger Drachmann (1846–1908), Herman Bang (1857–1912) and Henrik Pontoppidan (1857–1943) and painters Wilhelm Marstrand (1810–1873), Frederik Vermehren (1823–1910), Otto Bache (1839–1927), Kristian Zahrtmann (1843–1917), and Frants Henningsen (1850–1908).

The Hirschsprung Collection (Den Hirschsprungske Samling) was established by Pauline and the museum opened in 1911 with 45 paintings, 13 pastels, 205 drawings, 14 watercolors, 12 busts, 55 sketchbooks as well as P.S. Krøyer’s letters and documents. The collection has grown since then, and the museum continues to this day in a beautiful park setting near central Copenhagen, around the corner from the National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst).